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What was happening, you forgot to check the attachment for the other questions. So to make easy, here are the questions A & B you have missed previously. Created a table listing the tests you are going to complete to investigate your health question. In Milestone Four, you will actually complete these calculations. Specifically, you must address these critical elements:

Created a table listing the tests you are going to complete to investigate your health question. In Milestone Four, you will actually complete these calculations. Specifically, you must address these critical elements:
A. Graphs: In this section, you will use graphical displays to examine the data and formulate an initial hypothesis. In particular, you should:
1. Create key graphical displays that give a sense of potential relationships between variables. Include the graphs and discuss why you selected these graphical displays as opposed to others. B. Conduct appropriate hypothesis tests, simple regressions, and other tests to analyze the data set.
C. Explain why these tests are the best choice in this context and how they compare with established best practices.
 D. Analysis of Biostatistics: Use this section to describe your findings from a statistical standpoint.
 1. Present key biostatistics from the graphs, tests, and regressions performed, and explain what they mean. Be sure to include a spreadsheet showing your work as an appendix.
2. What statistical inferences or conclusions can you draw based on the hypothesis tests and simple regression analyses performed? Justify your response.

IHP525 Final Project Part I

  1. Explain why the authors of each article selected the methods they did. How appropriate were the methods to the overall purpose of the paper? Justify your response.

In the first article the researchers wants to study the gender differences in the self reported symptoms of depression among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). For finding these significant differences the researchers used the cross sectional observational study and a sample of the 789 adults is selected for this study. The research study is depends on the self reported symptoms of the depression among the patients and that’s why researchers cannot do any experiment. The results of this study only depends on the patients responses and therefore this is an observational study. This method is appropriate for overall purpose of the paper because by using this cross sectional observational study we can find out the significant differences between the male and females with the symptoms of the depression based on the responses from the selected patients. The subjects or patients with age more than 18 are selected so that there would be no wrong response/answer and most of the responses would be reliable for the observational study.

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For the second article the researchers want to study the gender specific characteristics of individuals with the depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study is to identify the socio-demographic, clinical, and psycho-behavioral characteristics that distinguish the men from women with both conditions. For this research study the cross sectional correlational design was used and for this cross sectional design a multiple randomized clinical trials were performed for reduction of the pre-hospital delay in the CHD patients. For this research study about 3522 patients were selected.

Both cases are summarized as below:

Article Method Participants Study topic
1 Cross sectional observational study 789 ACS
2 Cross sectional design with randomized clinical trials 3522 CHD
  • Analyze a difference and similarity in the methods chosen with respect to the health question being addressed in the selected articles. Explain your answer using evidence from the articles selected and information you have learned in the course.

For first research article, the method of cross sectional observational study is used for finding the significant gender differences in the self reported symptoms of depression among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The numerical summary for the first article is summarized as below:

Variable % Mean SD
Caucasian males 64% 61.35 11.56
BDI II Females 7.66% 11.89 9.68
BDI II Males 2.22% 9 7.93

However, the second research article use the cross sectional correlational design for the study of gender specific characteristics of individuals with the depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease (CHD). In the first article, the clinical trials were not used while in the second research study the clinical trials were used. The results of the first research study are based on the observational study or the responses from the subjects or patients while in the second research study the results are based on the clinical trials.

  • Assess strength and limitation of different approach used I the articles you selected. Explain your answer using evidence from the articles you selected and information you have learned in the course.

The strength and limitation of first and second research study are summarized as below:
The study is based on the large sample so results could be more reliable for the future use. But the selected samples are convenient sample which are largely made up of Caucasians with a high number of males. Due to this fact the results may be biased towards the male and the results would be more appropriate for males than females. Also, all the participants are selected from only two large tertiary medical centers with high levels of perspicacity but this sample does not represent the entire population and thus, we could not apply these results for entire country or location. The results for this research study are only limited to these selected medical centers. Despite these limitations, the results for this study would raise the possibility of females may have heterogeneous symptomology.

For the second research study, the sample is primarily Caucasian, so the findings cannot be generalize for the other ethnically population. Also, the research study does not measure some of the variables for which there is a possibility of getting influence for depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms are measured with a well validated instrument. Therefore, we cannot use the diagnostic criteria to define depression. For this research study it is not appropriate to infer regarding the sample selected for this test. However, the second research study is based on the clinical trials so the bias due to different factors would be decreased, and it is useful for using the results of the research study for further use.

What does your evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the articles you selected suggest for future research in this field?

Answer:

The research study in the first article is based on the large sample so results for this study would be more reliable for the future use. But it is essential to check whether the given sample is selected by using the proper random sampling method or not. Also, it is important to check whether the given random sample is homogeneous for entire population or not. For the first article the selected random sample is not homogeneous and this sample does not represent the entire population properly because this sample consists of most of the Caucasians with a high number of males. So, we evaluate that the given analysis is good for the prediction of the Caucasians with a high number of males but it would not be applicable for overall population under study. Also for the second research study the sample consist of most of Caucasian and thus we could not generalize the results of this study for other ethnic people. Also, from the overall study in the second article it is observed that all significant factors not included in the study and therefore results would be biased. But however all the results for this research study are very useful for the future research study only based on the Caucasian population. So with accordance to future use of the given research studies, it is important to use the proper techniques of random sampling and the selected sample would represent the entire population under study. Also, all significant factors responsible for the research variables would be include in the study. All types of measurement and instrumental errors would be avoided in future for getting more unbiased results.

Could you say that these articles are reaching the same conclusion or different one?  In other words, what would be the conclusions compare to the health question I’m debating?“To what extent does age influence length of hospital stay for MI patients?”

From the given two research articles, it is observed that these two articles reached the different conclusions. The first article concludes that there is a significant difference between the male and females with the symptoms of the depression based on the responses from the selected patients, however the second article concludes that the significant difference between the male and females with socio-demographic, clinical, and psycho-behavioral characteristics. Also, from the given research study it is observed that the age of the patient is responsible for the length of the hospital stay for the MI patients. A positive considerable linear relationship or association exists between the age of the MI patients and length of hospital stay for MI patients. This means as the age of the patients’ increases, the length of hospital stay also increases.

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