# Prospective studies on nutrition often require subjects to keep detailed daily dietary logs. In contrast, retrospective studies often rely on recall. Which method (dietary logs or retrospective recall) do you believe is more likely to achieve accurate results? Explain your response.

Answer the following questions covering materials from previous chapters in your textbook. Each question is worth 2.5 points.

- Prospective studies on nutrition often require subjects to keep detailed daily dietary logs.In contrast, retrospective studies often rely on recall. Which method (dietary logs or retrospective recall) do you believe is more likely to achieve accurate results?Explain your response.

- We often have a choice of whether to record a given variable on either a quantitative or a categorical scale.How does one measure age quantitatively?Provide an example by which age can be measured categorically.

- Telephone surveys may use a telephone directory to identify individuals for study.Speculate on the type of household that would be undercovered by using this sampling frame.

- Could the number “0000” appear in a table of random digits?If so, how likely is this?

- Body weights of 18 diabetics expressed as a percentage of ideal (defined as body weight divided by ideal body weight x 100) are listed: {107, 119, 99, 114, 120, 104, 88, 114, 124, 116, 101, 121, 152, 100, 125, 114, 95, 117}.Construct a stem-and-leaf plot of these data and interpret your findings.

- Name three measures of central location.

Mean, Median, and Mode

- To assess the air quality in a surgical suite, the presence of colony-forming spores per cubic meter of air is measured on three successive days.The results are as follows: {12, 24, 30}.Calculate the mean and standard deviation for these data.

Calculating the Mean

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∑x=12+24+30 => ∑x=66

x̅=1/n.∑x =>x̅=1/3.66 =>x̅= 22

- In a lottery game, a person must select 5 numbers from a total of 40.Tracy has chosen 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.Jaime has chosen 39, 17, 37, 5, 28.Who has a greater chance of winning?

- In a box, there are 8 orange, 7 blue, and 6 red balls.One ball is selected randomly.What is the probability that it is neither orange nor red?

- A __________ is a numerical quantity that takes on different values depending on chance.There are two types of random variables.__________ form a countable set of possible values.__________ form an unbroken continuum of possible values.