Principle of Finance
Required:
 Management believes it can sell a new product for $250. The fixed costs of production are estimated to be $50,000 and the variable costs are $215 a unit for the first scale of operations. The fixed costs of production are estimated to be at $150,000 and variable costs are $170 a unit for the second scale of operations.
 Prepare a table similar to the one below and complete with the given levels of output and the relationships between quantity and fixed cost, quantity and variable costs, and quantity and total costs.
First Scale of operations
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Quantity 
Total Revenue 
Variable Costs 
Fixed Costs 
Total Costs 
Profits 
0 

500 

1,000 

1,500 

2,000 

2,500 

3,000 
Second scale of operations
Quantity 
Total Revenue 
Variable Costs 
Fixed Costs 
Total Costs 
Profits 
0 

500 

1,000 

1,500 

2,000 

2,500 

3,000 

 What is the exact breakeven number of units sold for each scale of operations?
 Assume that ½ of the fixed costs in each scale of operations is noncash depreciation. What is the cash flow generated by each scale of operations if 1,000 of units are sold?
 You have been asked to advise the management of this company on which scale of production to use. Let us assume that the management is uncertain on how many units they can sell, but estimate it will be between 500 and 3,000 units during the first year and progressively more after that. Please advise management what you learned from the breakeven analysis and the tables that you devised that should help them make up their minds. Give them pros and cons for both alternatives.
 The management of a firm wants to introduce a new product. The product will sell for $15.00 a unit and can be produced by either of two scales of operation. Following are the total costs:
First scale of operation
TC = $20,000 + $10.00Q
Second scale of operation
TC = $40,000 + $5.00Q
Following are the anticipated levels of sales:
Year 
Unit Sales 
1 
3,000 
2 
3,500 
3 
4,000 
4 
5,000 
What can management expect for profits or losses in years 1 and 2 if it selects the scale of operations with lower fixed costs? On what grounds can management justify selecting this scale of operation? If sales reach 5,000 a year, which is the correct scale of operation?
 You have been asked to rank the payback periods of three investments for a business. They each cost $35,000.
Year 
A 
B 
C 
1 
$10,000 
$25,000 
$12,500 
2 
$10,000 
$10,000 
$8,500 
3 
$10,000 
$4,000 
$6,000 
4 
$10,000 
$500 
$8,000 
5 
$10,000 
0 
$5,000 
Rank the investments based on payback period. Would you rank them as investments in that order? Why or why not? See the table above for the cash flows of each.
 Given the following information answer the following questions:
TR = $3Q
TC = $1,500 + $2Q
 What is the break even level of output?
 If the firm sells 1,300 units, what are the firm’s earnings or losses?
 If sales rise to 2,000 units, what are the firms earnings or losses?
 What happens to the breakeven level of output units if the total cost equation were: TC = $2,000 + $1.80Q